Monday, May 25, 2020
Contribution of Psychology and Social Psychology to the Study of Health and Welfare Issues In this assignment I will be comparing and contrasting two psychological approaches demonstrating their relevance to understanding a health issue. The issue that I will be applying the two psychological approaches to is Smoking. The psycho dynamic approach denotes the active forces within the personality that motivate behaviour, and the inner causes of behaviour, in particular the unconscious conflict between the different structures that compose the whole personality. There are a lot of factors that contribute to why people behave in a certain way and why peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These conflicts are accompanied by anxiety and result from interactions between the different personality structures named the ego, the id and the super ego. The id is concerned with the gratification of basic biological instincts and the pleasure principle, the ego is manifested as consciousness and the reality principle. The super ego constituted moral conscience and idealistic striving. The development of an individuals personality structures arises as a result of a maturational process from birth to adulthood. A lot of people do not realise what smoking is actually doing to their health and most smokers are living in denial which is a defence mechanism people use to block out the unpleasant reality of smoking which exists. The smoker does know that smoking cigarettes causes cancer and if the smoker doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop they could die of cancer or another disease associated with smoking such as heart disease. For example the symptoms of lung cancer are the coughing up of blood, shortness of breath, dry cough with phlegm, weight loss and a dull continuous pain in the chest and shoulders. If a smoker has theses symptoms and are a heavy smoker he or she may delay in seeking medical advice because they are afraid of the diagnosis. The learning approach is associated with the behaviorist perspectiveShow MoreRelatedChild Poverty And Its Effects On Children1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChild Poverty in Canada Grace Abbott once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.Ã¢â¬ Child poverty is one of the biggest issues facing Canadian children today. Child poverty can significantly shorten a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One of the major reasons child poverty in Canada is so high is because of low wages. These children haveRead MoreEssay on Why Sociology Is Important to Nursing986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1) Introduction As an introduction, generally, sociology is mainly the study of society, communities and people whereas nursing is a profession which focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, maintaining and recovering optimal health and functioning. In this assignment, I will describe the definition of Sociology, the definition of nursing and explain why sociology is very important and is relevant to nursing practice. I hope this assignment will show the relevanceRead MorePsychological Approaches : Behaviorism, Cognitive And Humanistic Approach1659 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespsychological approaches will be discussed in this essay, it will analyse the strengths and limitations of each the humanistic, cognitive and the humanistic approach. This essay will consider the contributions made to therapies in the modern life; evaluate how valid the methodology is using case studies to back up these theories and how they contribute to each other to becoming an approach. The behaviourist psychologists emphasise the role of the environment and how this can affect the behaviourRead MoreThe Mentally Ill O FF Ender Treatment And Crime Reduction Act Of 2004 : Problems And Prospects1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand closures of state mental hospitals that occurred in the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. These changes resulted in the SMI personsÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of access and scarcity of community mental health treatment, housing issues and homelessness, social welfare policies, stringent inpatient and drug laws, substance abuse, and poverty. These social factors contributed to increases in SMI, into the criminal justice system. Furthermore, stricter inpatient commitment laws made it exceedingly more diÃ¯ ¬Æ'cult to diagnose and treatRead MoreThe Socio Economic Factors Of Teenage Pregnancy1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschoice, for example, tasks of teenage parenting have long-term impact on the mental health of the mother and children (Statistics New Zealand, 200 3). It is important to identify the socio economic factors of teenage pregnancy to lower the chances of mental health problems in young mothers. In this paper the aim is to analyse the main socio economic factors of teenage pregnancy and discuss how it affects the mental health of an adolescent mother in New Zealand. This essay will commence by identifyingRead MoreNursing Practice in a Given Scenario1787 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshospital stay could leave them even more disabled than they were before. Unfortunately, theres new reason to believe this fear is justified. Elderly patients who are hospitalized are at much higher risk of cognitive problems afterward, according to a study published on Wednesday in the journal Neurology. Joan would have to witness a number of stressful psychological factors. For one he would be unfamiliar with his new surroundings. He had lived with his daughter in law and son for quite some time andRead MoreThe Factors Of Teenage Pregnancy1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschoice, for example, tasks of teenage parenting have long-term impact on the mental health of the mother and children (Statistics New Zealand, 2003). It is important to identify the socioeconomic factors of teenage pregnancy to lower the chances of mental health problems in young mothers. In this paper the aim is to analyse the main socioeconomic factors of teenage pregnancy and discuss how it affects the mental health of an adolescent mother in New Zealand. This essay will commence by identifying howRead MoreWhat Is Statistic Ethical Practice?975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin tune and keep up with any new updates that deals with the research process. It is imperative that the researcher has a concise knowledge base in theory, data, and the research method that is used in statistical studies. The researcher need to acknowledge and respect the contributions made by others by listing them in the reference section of their paper and in text citation. The research should have expert source available or it should be a peer review. They need to realize that they are heldRead MoreWhat I Have Learned About Research1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescognition, social behavior, personality development, learning, and neuropsychology. Basic research will be more helpful for answering fundamental questions about the nature of behavior. Applied research however, addresses more of a specific problem with a possible solution. Program evaluation covers a large area of applied research. Program evaluation assesses the social reforms and innovations that occur in government, education, the criminal justice system, industry, health care, and mental health institutionsRead MoreThe Apa Code Of Ethics1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesno harm. As professionals, psychologists seek to protect the welfare and rights of those who they interact with professionally and other affected people, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. When conflicts arise, psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ attempt to resolve them in a responsible manner that avoids or mini mizes harm. Because psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ judgments and actions may affect others, they are alert and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The miss leadings of Romeo and Juliet Evelyn McHale is peacefully sleeping. Her ankles are crossed; lines follow down to her shoeless feet. Her gloved hand pulls ever so slightly on her pearl necklace, the other lying limp beside her craned head. Her face is relaxed, red lips parted and white eye lids closed. The stunning Evelyn McHale is seemingly sleeping on the hood of a car. The hood of the Black Cadillac contorts to Miss McHaleÃ¢â¬â¢s body. The medal crushed under her, following the curvature of her slim figure. Shattered Glass seems to be near her face but does not dare damage her beauty. Four minutes after Evelyn McHaleÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide, Rover C. Wile snapped a picture of Evelyn; this picture was titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Most Beautiful SuicideÃ¢â¬ . Evelyn McHale was immortalized by the beauty in her death and the tragedy in her story. (Ã¢â¬Å"Picture of the WeekÃ¢â¬ ) Evelyn McHale jumped from the Empire state building on May first 1947. She was the eleventh person to jump from the Empire state building since it had opened on May first 1931. She left a suicide note saying she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be remembered. She wanted to be cremated and forgotten. She said her fiancÃ © deserved someone better and sheÃ¢â¬â¢d never make a good mother. She was planned to be married in June of 1947. The last person she was with was her fiancÃ ©, he had no idea that she was anything but happy. When she landed on the car, the sound was reported to be as loud as an explosion. (Ã¢â¬Å"Picture of the WeekÃ¢â¬ ) I think use to think about deathShow MoreRelatedEssay on Comparing Romeo and Juliet Films1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComparing Romeo and Juliet Films In this essay I intend to compare both the part scenes of Franco Zefferelli and Baz Lurhman movie. FrancoÃ¢â¬â¢s film was screened in 1970; the actors who play the role of RomeoJuliet are Leonardo Whiting and Olivia Hussey. BazÃ¢â¬â¢s film was screened in 1997. Leonardo Di Caprio played the role of Romeo and Clare Danes had played the role of Juliet. In this essay I will discuss the differences in both these film that tell the sameRead MoreCrm in Supermarkets30832 Words Ã |Ã 124 PagesEB 2003-02 February 2003 FOOD INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT CORNELL U N I V E R S I T Y Customer Relationship Marketing (CRM) in the U.S. Supermarket Industry: Current Status and Prospects Gerard F. Hawkes Senior Extension Associate Food Industry Management Program Department of Applied Economics and Management College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801 Teaching Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research Ã¢â¬ ¢ Executive Education IT IS THE POLICY OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY actively to support
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Personal Experience: As soon as I finished my freshman year of college, I was eager to get a summer job, learn a few new skills, and earn money. I accepted a job at a modern Parisian brasserie, known as, Avenue Le Club. Although I had applied to be a server, the manager who hired me explained that I would start as a back server, which assisted the servers and took care of the side work in the kitchen, because there would be so much to learn in such a high intensity environment and eventually I could work my way up to a server. Either way, I was extremely zealous to begin and felt lucky to have this opportunity, for it is such a pristine, high-end, beautifully designed restaurant. The Avenue is run by a foreign general manager from France and assisted by a sommelier from Brazil; both very unapproachable people. The beauty and perfection on the outside of this place veiled the hatred, the constant belittling, and the intensity within the staff and management. My first three days of training went well, des pite the enormous amount of information I had to absorb. Everything was done a specific way, in a specific order, where if you messed up slightly management threatened to send you home. I have never had the opportunity to be in such a severe, demanding work atmosphere before and it was only day three. My anxiety was had reached itÃ¢â¬â¢s peak, but with words of encouragement from my coworkers, I was convinced it would all be worth it when I could become a server. When I wasShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Les Mills New Zealand1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMGMT 101 Ã¢â¬â LES MILLS Les Mills New Zealand (Les Mills) was started in 1968, they have pioneered many aspects of the modern fitness industry and are at the forefront worldwide. This report will discuss relevant management techniques and theories that relate to Les Mills current situation. ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR McGREGORÃ¢â¬â¢S X AND Y THEORY McGregors X and Y theory are his model that he used to urge managers to move away from the set of assumptions he called Theory X (people dislike work, lack ambitionRead More The Chrysler Building Essay2994 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pageswith the development of a water pumps that were made of steel and reinforced with concrete. Skyscrapers first appeared in New York and Chicago. The Home Insurance Building, the first skyscraper ever erected, was a 10 story structure built by William Le Baron Jenney in Chicago. Although these problems were corrected and the idea of building a skyscraper became a feasible task, there were many conditions that had to be taken into account, that did not need consideration when buildingRead MoreThe Modern Port Of Miami Essay1831 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthey reached our first stop in Port Antonio.Ã¢â¬ The civic-minded Hiller responded by designing the Ã¢â¬Å"New ExperiencesÃ¢â¬ program to build cultural understanding between the passengers and the Jamaicans and it resonated with KlosterÃ¢â¬â¢s humanitarian spirit. While the program did not last, it was one a forerunner of ecotourism and forty years later Kloster still highlights it as a demonstration of his personal philosophy. NCL, however, was also facing its own internal problems as the relationship between KlosterRead MoreMarketing Report on Nespresso8643 Words Ã |Ã 35 PagesIntroduction NestlÃ © is a global company who recognizes that to be a successful company you have to be competitive and cost efficient. They put their customers first, and wish to create long lasting relationships with them, creating a luxurious exclusive experience to their coffee customers through their sub-brand Nespresso. Having positioned themselves as a luxury good, the Nespresso brand faces several weak points in their positioning during the current recession. Communication and marketing are thereforeRead MoreEvolution Of The Cruise Industry Essay2010 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesexpect when they reached our first stop in Port Antonio.Ã¢â¬ The civic-minded Hiller designing the Ã¢â¬Å"New ExperiencesÃ¢â¬ program to build cultural understanding between the passengers and the Jamaicans and it resonated with KlosterÃ¢â¬â¢s humanitarian spirit. While the program did not last, it was one a forerunner of ecotourism and even forty years later Kloster still highlights it as a demonstration of his personal philosophy. NCL, however, was also facing its own internal problems as the relationship betweenRead MoreStreet Art Is Visual Art2446 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesculture jamming, the abolishment of private property and reclaiming the streets. Some street artists use smart vandalism as a way to raise awareness of social and political issues. Other street artists simply see urban space as an untapped format for personal artwork, while others may appreciate the challenges and risks that are associated with installing illicit artwork in public places. A universal motive of most, if not all street art, is that adapting visual artwork into a format which utilizes publicRead MoreGrowth of a Hotel Chain Via Globalization6780 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesSwissair NestlÃ © SwissÃ ´tel Ltd. Wittwer has worked for Le Meridien, Inter-Continental Hotels Group, The Mandarin Hotel Group, The Peninsula Hotels group and Hyatt Hotels Corporation. Chief Operating Officer Duncan OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke, with Kempinski since 2002. His main responsibility is consolidating KempinskiÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion and ensuring the group delivers on its brand promise through operational excellence, through his own extensive international experience. Over two decades before beginning his career at KempinskiRead More Euro Disney Essay6225 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pages1984, the stock price went from $84.375 per share to $48.75.7 As the company fell from riches-to-rags, Roy Disney, Jr., was forced to watch the Disney Empire built by his uncle, Walt Disney, and his father, Roy Disney, Sr., crumble. He also saw his personal holdings in the company drop from $96 million to $54 million. Roy had always held a firm belief that 6 Myron Magnet. Ã¢â¬Å"The Mouse at Disney,Ã¢â¬ Fortune (December 10, 1984), pp. 57-64. 7 Ibid. A15-99-0007 3 the various divisions of the company were synergisticRead MoreMarketing Report for LOreal6541 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesuser as different from and of higher perceived value that its competitors (Johnson Scholes, 2002). LOreal invests heavily into its research and development which gives its differentiation and competitive advantage against its competitors. Ãâ¢ Experience: LOreal has been the global market leader in the cosmetics and toiletries industry since 2001 (Euromonitor, 2005). LOreal invests heavily into its research and development to satisfy its changing consumer demands and lifestyle. LOreal has toRead MoreTrends in Hotel Industry13993 Words Ã |Ã 56 Pagessomeone who looks for help at a strange or unfriendly place. It refers to the process of receiving and entertaining a guest with goodwill. Hospitality in the commercial context refers to the activity of hotels, restaurants, catering, inn, resorts or clubs who make a vocation of treating tourists. Helped With unique efforts by government and all other stakeholders, including hotel owners, resort managers, tour and travel operators and employees who work in the sector, Indian hospitality industry has
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
It is almost midnight. My feet are sore, my hands are calloused, my head is pounding and the smell of The Red Parrot food and cigarette smoke is seeping from my body. I have just worked for 12 hours and feel 100 years old, but it is worth it. At nine years old I started working with my older sister at a laundromat. I folded every piece of laundry with a smile. It may be odd for a nine-year-old to choose to work rather than go to a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house, but I was only thinking of what I was working for. Now I could finally afford Friday night dances, field trips and other things most parents normally pay for. When I could legally work, I got a job bussing tables at The Red Parrot, an enormous restaurant located on the Atlantic coast. I bussed tables with the same attitude I had at the laundromat, but by 14, my ideals morphed. We will write a custom essay sample on Saturday Nights or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬Å"You should start saving for college, if you want to go,Ã¢â¬ one of my seven sisters wisely explained. It was a turning point no longer would I save for petty things, but instead, for my future. That first summerÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings are now part of my college savings. That summer I was faced with everything from needing to fend for myself to having to help support my family, but from it all, my job proved the largest stepping stone. It led to my maturity and with it came financial independence and the responsibility of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ dependence. Well, it is midnight, just a regular Saturday night, and since that summer I have matured. I have learned how to manage school and work, but to me they are one and the same. I work for what I want, whether an income or an education. My hard work has paid off. At school it has made it possible for me to graduate a year early, and at the Red Parrot I have been promoted from hostess to head hostess, and now waitress and head hostess. Work has become part of a rope that holds my life together. This rope is tied so tightly that I do not have time for much else. I cannot pursue other activities, study for that extra A+ or go out on Saturday nights. Yet, I can buy groceries, help my mother with bills and buy my car. To be frank, working for what I need far outweighs working for what I want. Working has become one of the most important parts of my life, and I love it. If I need anything, I work for it. Since my parents cannot buy me clothes, give me lunch money or pay for my college education, I will.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Mclibel Case Study As organizations seeks ways to increase profits by filtering into international markets, many turn to the field of public relations as a way of reaching cross-cultural markets. Factors such as values, cultural differences, language barriers, beliefs, etcin order to successfully promote an organizations products and services. Public relations practitioners have the responsibility to be the mediator between the organizations and public(s). According to Murphy and Dee (1992), Public relations makes organizations more effective by building relationships with stakeholders in the environment that have the potential to constrain or enhance the mission of the organization. This role also involves disseminating and seeking information to the public. This information/feedback provides the public relations practitioners and the organizations with insight as how the publics perceive the organization. When the organizations forget/ignore the importance of public relations practitioners role in the organizational structure, this may often result in dissatisfactions among the organizations publics and often react in a way that may harm to the organization. This conflict is characterized as activism, which when not dealt correctly, can end in harsh consequences such as tarnished reputation or decrease in profits. 1. McDonalds perspective in identifying their key publics in the Mclibel case. Its very important to correctly identify and characterize the relevant key publics. Dewy(1982) first propounded a public is a group whose members face a similar problem, recognize that problem exists, and organizes something to do about it. Grunig and Hunt(1984) assert that there are three stages in the evolutions of publics. In the first stage, the public does not recognize the problem. In latent stages, the public moves to the aware stage when it recognizes the problem. The final stage is the active stage recognizes the problem and organizes something to do about it. According to J.E. Grunig and Hunt (1984) the idea is to communicate with an aware public before it actively opposes an organization, thus becoming an activist public. London Greenpeace is an activist group with 3.3 million members in over 22 countries that use highly visible actions to draw media attention to environmental problems. The London Greenpeace group, a division of Greenpeace, is an independent group of activists that has no involvement in any political party. This group meets weekly to share concern for the oppression in our lives and the destruction of our environment. Anderson (1992) cited that weaknesses in most case studies of activism is that similar case studies should be conducted that examine activism from the perspective of both the organizations and of the activists groups, which is applicable to this study of the McLibel case. In my research, I came across must more literature and disseminated information from the small activist group of London Greenpeace versus the large multi-national corporation of McDonald's. This study also points to the need of more studies that examine the special problems of international communicatio n. The actions of a McDonald's triggered activist conflict not only in London, but in other different countries as well. If public relations practitioners are to assess issues successfully and identify publics that are likely to become active on those issues, they must look beyond the confines of their own culture and beyond the borders of their own country, Anderson (1992). Greenpeace, being an extreme organization, has to manage or maintain its public image as a group that will not compromise on environmental issues, Murphy and Dee (1992). The organization fits Grunig's (1989) description of a high involvement, information seeking public which believe in collective intervention in organizational decision making. This public seeks to change the direction of environmental decline versus a substitution for lost resources. Strategies of conflict used by Greenpeace, extreme actions, unilateral demands and its intolerance for compromisation. This model emphasizes winning at the expense of the other in which both Greenpeace and McDonald's exemplified through its actions. This method includes communication through manipulation of the issues to slant arguments in its own favor, the use of flamboyant symbols to depict choices in absolute terms, and the refusal to cede any points as pointed by Murphy and Dee (1992). Greenpeace used flamboyant symbols in celebrating the second anniversary of the trial by inviting the media and the public to celebrate by eating a cake in the shape of
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Palenque Aqueduct Systems - Ancient Maya Water Control Palenque is a famous Classic Maya archaeological site located in the lush tropical forest at the foothills of the Chiapas highlands of Mexico. It is perhaps best known for the lovely architecture of its royal palace and temples, as well as for being the site of the tomb of Palenques most important ruler, king Pakal the Great (ruled A.D. 615-683), discovered in 1952 by the Mexican archaeologist Alberto Ruz Luhillier. A casual visitor at Palenque today always notices the rushing mountain stream nearby, but that is just a hint that Palenque has one of the best preserved and sophisticated systems of underground water control in the Maya region. Palenque Aqueducts Palenque is located on a narrow limestone shelf about 150 meters (500 feet) above the plains of Tabasco. The high escarpment was an excellent defensive position, important in Classic times when warfare was increasingly frequent; but it also a place with many natural springs. Nine separate watercourses arising from 56 recorded mountain springs bring water into the city. Palenque is called the land where the waters flow out of the mountains in the Popol Vuh, and the presence of constant water even in times of drought was very attractive to its residents. However, with so many streams within a limited shelf area, there isnt a lot of space to put houses and temples. And, according to the archaeologist A.P. Maudsley who worked at Palenque between 1889-1902 when the aqueducts had long since stopped functioning, the water level rose and flooded the plaza and residential areas even in the dry season. So, during the Classic period, the Maya responded to the conditions by constructing a unique water control system, channeling the water beneath plazas, thereby reducing floods and erosion, and increasing living space all at the same time. Palenques Water Control The water control system at Palenque includes aqueducts, bridges, dams, drains, walled channels, and pools; much of it recently discovered as a result of three years of intensive archaeological survey called the Palenque Mapping Project, led by American archaeologist Edwin Barnhart. Although water control was a characteristic of most Maya sites, Palenques system is unique: other Maya sites worked to keep water stored during the dry season; Palenque worked to harness the water by constructing elaborate subterranean aqueducts that guided the stream beneath the plaza floors. The Palace Aqueduct Todays visitor entering the archaeological area of Palenque from its north side is guided on a path that leads her from the main entrance to the central plaza, the heart of this Classic Maya site. The main aqueduct built by the Maya to channel the water of the Otulum River runs through this plaza and a length of it has been exposed, a result of the collapse of its vault. A visitor walking down from the Cross Group, on the hilly southeastern side of the plaza, and toward the Palace, will have the opportunity to admire the stonework of the aqueducts walled channel and, especially during the rainy season, to experience the roaring sound of the river flowing under her feet. Variances in building materials made researchers count at least four construction phases, with the earliest one probably contemporaneous to the construction of the Pakals Royal Palace. A Fountain at Palenque? Archaeologist Kirk French and colleagues (2010) have recorded evidence that the Maya not only knew about water control, they knew all about creating and controlling water pressure, the first evidence of prehispanic knowledge of this science. The spring-fed Piedras Bolas aqueduct has a subterranean channel of about 66 m (216 ft) in length. For most of that length, the channel measures 1.2x.8 m (4x2.6 ft) in cross-section, and it follows a topographic slope of about 5:100. Where the Piedras Bolas meets the plateau, there is an abrupt decrease in channel size to a much smaller section (20x20 cm or 7.8x7.8 in) and that pinched-in section runs for about 2 m (6.5 ft) before it reemerges in an adjacent channel. Assuming the channel was plastered when it was in use, even relatively small discharges could maintain a quite significant hydraulic head of nearly 6 m (3.25 ft). French and colleagues suggest that manufactured increase in water pressure may have had a number of different purposes, including maintaining a water supply during drought, but it is possible that there may well have been a fountain springing upward and outward in a display in Pakals city. Water Symbolism at Palenque The OtulumÃ River that runs from the hills south of the plaza was not only carefully managed by the ancient inhabitants of Palenque, but it was also part of the sacred symbolism used by the city rulers. The spring of the Otulum is in fact next to a temple whose inscriptions talk about rituals associated with this water source. The ancient Maya name of Palenque, known from many inscriptions, is Lakam-h which means great water. It is not a coincidence, then, that so much effort was put by its rulers in connecting their power to the sacred value of this natural resource. Before leaving the plaza and continuing toward the eastern portion of the site, the attention of the visitors is attracted to another element that symbolizes the ritual importance of the river. A huge carved stone with the image of an alligator is posed on the eastern side at the end of the aqueducts walled channel. Researchers link this symbol to the Maya belief that caimans, along with other amphibian creatures, were guardians of the continuous flow of water. At high water, this caiman sculpture would have appeared to have floated on the top of the water, an effect that still is seen today when the water is high. Fending Off Droughts Although American archaeologist Lisa Lucero has argued that a widespread drought may have caused great disruption at many Maya sites at the end of the 800s, French and colleagues think that when the drought came to Palenque, the below-ground aqueducts could have stored adequate amounts of water to keep the city sufficiently watered even during the severest droughts. After being channeled and running under the surface of the plaza, the water of the Otulum flows down the slope of the hill, forming cascades and beautiful water pools. One of the most famous of these spots is called The Queen Bath (BaÃ ±o de la Reina, in Spanish). Importance The Otulum aqueduct is not the only aqueduct in Palenque. At least other two sectors of the site have aqueducts and constructions related to water management. These are areas not open to the public and located almost 1 km away from the sites core. The history of the construction of the Otulums aqueduct in the main plaza of Palenque offers us a window into the functional and symbolic meaning of space for the ancient Maya. It also represents one of the most evocative places of this famous archaeological site. Sources Edited and updated by K. Kris Hirst French KD. 2007. Creating space through water management at the Classic Maya site of Palenque, Chiapas. In: Marken DB, editor. Palenque: Recent Investigations at the Classic Maya Center. Lanham, Massachusetts: Altamira Press. p 123-132.French KD, and Duffy CJ. 2010. Prehispanic water pressure: A New World first. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(5):1027-1032.French KD, Duffy CJ, and Bhatt G. 2012. The hydroarchaeological method: a case study at the Maya site of Palenque. Latin American Antiquity 23(1):29-50.French KD, Duffy CJ, and Bhatt G. 2013. The urban hydrology and hydraulic engineering at the Classic Maya site of Palenque. Water History 5(1):43-69.Lucero LJ. 2002. The collapse of the Classic Maya: A case for the role of water control. American Anthropologist 104(3):814-826.Lucero LJ, and Fash BW. 2006. Precolumbian Water Management. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Two Descriptions - Essay Example With tears of grief in my eyes, I looked helplessly at the pale moon. Imagining my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s face in the moon, to me the thin strands of black clouds across it appeared as black hair combed back across the top of my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s head. The sky was crying with me, I stared at her as she turned her beautifully sculptured face towards the sky once again as if remembering that dear one once again and gave out a cry of grief. My heart cried with her and the dark night cried with us too. The roar of the thunder made me cry even more and as I watched her disappear along the street, I once again became aware of my loneliness. The night seemed to engulf me into its eerie darkness and helplessly I eyed the rain drops sliding down my window pane as tears rolled down my face. From the kitchen window, one night I saw a beautiful woman playfully jerking back her rain sleeked coat with such joy that people crossing the road turned around to laugh with her. Rain drops drizzled off the brim of her beautiful hat. Tonight the rain was exceptionally serene and I wanted to dance to the rhythm of the falling raindrops. I gazed out at the happy woman as she lifted her face up to the sky and smiled at the moon. I followed her gaze and stared at the faint moon peeking from the dark wisps of clouds. I imagined my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s smiling face in the moon, to me the thin strands of black clouds across it appeared as black hair combed back across the top of my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s head. The sky seemed to shed tears of happiness as I laughed out loud remembering my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s little pranks. The woman danced gingerly on the damp street and turned her gaze once again to the smiling moon. Rain drops kissed her face as she closed her eyes and lifted her face up to the sky. The rain droplets seemed to tinkle her face because she gave out a cry of joy and pleasure. I laughed with her as the sky brightened with lightening and the thunder